Historical Files, H46
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OUR TRIP TO DEER CREEK
On April 6, we left Vicksburg at nine o'clock P.M., traveled all night, and at break of day reached the boat landing near Snyder's Bluff, and immediately started up the river on the Steamer Peyton. We traveled up the Yazoo until we reached the mouth of the Sun Flower River which we traveled up until we reached Lake Georgia, from which place the "Hope" took us up to Rolling Fork, where we traveled two miles in flat-bottom boats oared by Negroes. We boarded these at sunset and reached the landing, two miles distant, at one o'clock in the morning. Our patience was worn out, for we were seven hours going two miles. We marched the remainder of the day.
By April 10, we had established our fort at Deer Creek. In Washington, the adjoining county, the enemy had a large a large force which was plundering and destroying property. A great many Negroes were taken off the farms and many dwellings were burned; in fact, many wealthy citizens were almost reduced to extreme poverty. Numbers of refugees came by our camp every day. I was obliged to admit then that the "Yankees had no regard for honor, nor respect for human feelings."
At Deer Creek, Mississippi, April 23, 1863, a Negro was hanged for bearing dispatches for the Yankees, which he had concealed in a plug of tobacco. He hung all day and then was taken down by the army surgeon and dissected. Our regiment remained there eighteen days, during which time our principal employment was fishing.
April 28, we received orders to return to Vicksburg. We boarded the boat that evening. On May first we landed at Snyder's Bluff. We traveled nearly all night and reached Vicksburg a short time before day. There we were ordered to proceed to Grand Bluff as reinforcements for our army which was in close contact with the enemy. Also on this day we received news of the loss of General Tracy and a considerable number of men; also that our forces were falling back this side of Big Black River. Orders were received late in the afternoon to move in the direction of Big Black Bridge. On May 4, we stacked arms at the rod, "To Vicksburg, ten miles; to fork of a road where the signboards [read?] Hall's Ferry, ten miles; to Warrenton, nine miles." Here we awaited further orders.
We passed the residence of Dr. Nailor, whom we all described as the most patriotic citizen we met in Mississippi. He had barrels of cistern water which was a "rarity." His servants had drawn the water from the cistern. He and his family were sitting by the roadside, busily engaged in giving each soldier a drink and filling his canteen. His table was ready for one and all. Dr. Nailor said he had been feeding soldiers ever since the beginning of the war, and had never exacted one cent in return.
On May 12, General Cumming, of Georgia, took command of our brigade. We began marching at nine o'clock in the evening and continued until three o'clock. On the night of May 15, we slept near our enemies — very near the battlefield.
The following is General Pemberton's address to his soldiers, which was printed and distributed among them a few days prior to the battle at Baker's Creek:
Department Mississippi and East La.
Vicksburg, May 12, 1863
Soldiers of the Army, in and around Vicksburg:
The hour of trial has come! The enemy who has so long threatened Vicksburg in front has at last effected a landing in this department and his march into the interior of Mississippi has been marked by the devastation of one of the fairest portions of the state! He seeks to break the communications between the members of the Confederacy, and to control the navigation of the Mississippi River! The issue involves everything endeared to a free people. The enemy fights for the privilege of plunder and oppression; you fight for your country, homes, wives, children, and the birthright of freedom! Your commanding general, believing in the truth and sacredness of this cause, has cast his lot with you, and stands ready to peril his life and all he holds dear for the triumph of the right! God rules in the affairs of men and nations, loves justice and hates wickedness. He will not allow a cause so just to be trampled in the dust. In the day of conflict let each man, appealing to Him for strength, strike home for victory, and our triumph is at once assured. A grateful country will hail us as deliverers, and cherish the memory of those who may fall as martyrs in her defense. Soldiers! be vigilant, brave and active; let there be no cowards, nor laggards, nor stragglers from the ranks — and the God of battles will certainly crown our efforts with success.
J. C. PEMBERTON
Lieutenant General Commanding
BATTLE OF BAKERS CREEK
On May 16, a terrible battle was fought. General Pemberton moved within a short distance of the enemy, and arranged his troops in line of battle; an engagement commenced, and continued until late in the evening.
The Fifty-Sixth Georgia Regiment was in the thickest of the engagement, and its killed, wounded and missing were considerable. Colonel Watkins was among the wounded. He had been in ill health six months previous to the battle and was under medical treatment at Vicksburg. When he heard that his regiment was marching to the battlefield he immediately started for the scene of action, and although he was scarcely able to sit upon his horse he hurried on, and his tall and slender form appeared before his regiment, just as it was taking its position in front of the enemy. I am proud to say however that Colonel Watkins' wound was only slight. Several great generals fell during the day "amid the roar of cannon and din of battle."
The enemy being superior to us in number, we after fighting them all day and sustaining a heavy loss, retired in the evening and turned up our heads next morning inside the fortifications at Big Black Bridge. General Pemberton left a brigade at Big Black Bridge, and with the remainder of the army, proceeded to the fortifications at Vicksburg.
The enemy attacked Big Black Bridge, and after a terrible battle at the bridge, together with the majority of the brigade, fell into his hands. Not however, until the bridge was all in flames, which was soon reduced to ashes.
Martin Gentry was captured this same day by the Union Army of Tennessee, according to a Roll of Prisoners of War captured and sent to Memphis, Tennessee, 25 May 1863. The roll was dated 29 June 1863, in the field near Vicksburg (Roll 29, sheet 29). His name also appears on a Roll of Prisoners of War at Camp Morton, Indiana, that is not dated, but lists his capture as being 16 May 1863 at Champion Hill (Roll 129, sheet 20). Another roster of Prisoners of War at Fort Delaware, DEL. (Fort Delaware Register No. 1, page 2), records Martin being captured at Champion Hill 16 May 1863, then received (apparently in Delaware) on 9 June 1863, and exchanged on 4 July 1863. The final entry in this saga of capture, transfers and release is Martin's signature on a Roll of Prisoners of War paroled at Fort Delaware on 3 July 1863 (the day before the surrender at Vicksburg), and apparently delivered at City Point, Virginia, 6July 1863 (Roll 145, sheet 53). This sequence suggests that Martin was not present at the Battle of Big Black Bridge described above, and that his company was involved instead in fighting that day at Champion Hill, apparently one of the hills around Vicksburg described below.]
General Evans' Confederate Military History describes the Battle of Champion Hill as follows: "May 16th, the Georgia brigades of Barton and Cumming fought with General Stevenson where the combat was hottest. Barton on the right, Cumming in the center, and Stephen D. Lee on the left bore alone for some time the Federal assaults, and when they were forced to yield ground the battle was lost.
The Georgia regiments engaged were the Fifty-sixth, Col. E. P. Watkins; Fifty-seventh, Col. William Barkaloo; Thirty-sixth, Col. Jesse A. Glenn; Thirty-fourth, Col. J. A. W. Johnson; Thirty-ninth, Col. J. T. McConnell — all of Gen. Alfred Cumming's brigade; the Fortieth, Coil. Abda Johnson; Forty-first, Col. William E. Curtiss; Forty-second, Col. R. J. Henderson; Forty-third, Col. Skidmore Harris, and the Fifty-second, Col. C. D. Phillips — all of Gen. Seth Barton's brigade. These ten Georgia regiments, with Lee's four Alabama regiments, practically fought the battle against what General Stevenson reported was an army of four divisions, numbering from their own accounts, about 25,000 men.
Cumming and Lee gallantly repulsed for some time the enemy's assaults, and being pushed back finally rallied on the line of the Fifty-sixth and Fifty-seventh Georgia. Soon afterwards the blow fell upon Barton, and despite his gallant endeavors he was forced back and cut off from the division.
Cumming's brigade was about 2,500 strong, and lost in killed 142, wounded 314, missing 539, total 995. Of the missing General Cumming estimated that about 200 more were killed or wounded. As they fell back fighting desperately against the flanking attacks of the enemy, Colonels McConnell and Watkins were severely wounded. Colonel Watkins had left his sick room at Vicksburg to command his regiment in this fight. . . . During the siege of Vicksburg, soon afterward began, and continued until the surrender July 4, 1863, the remnants of the ten Georgia regiments shared the heroic services and uncomplaining endurance of Pemberton's little army. . . . Walker and his Georgians took part in the ineffectual defense of Jackson, Mississippi, against Sherman, after the fall of Vicksburg."
SIEGE OF VICKSBURG
Upon this siege, the history and suffering of which is almost equal to any placed upon ancient or modern records, I deem it necessary, in order give the reader a more complete idea of the events and particulars as they transpired, to give a complete description of the city and fortifications. The City of Vicksburg, which is correctly termed the "Hill City," is situated on a number of small hills that extend along the eastern bank of the Mississippi River. This same range of hills reaches for several miles north, south and east of the city; in consequence of which hundreds of little villages, ravines and gullies intervened. About one mile from the city a chain of these hills begin at the river below, and continues about the same distance from the city, until they reach the river below, forming a semi-circle around the city, nearly in the shape of a half moon. This half circle is of such uniform regularity that it seems as though it was formed for the great circle of 1863. The fortifications extended around on the summits of this chain of hills and inside this small compass was General Pemberton's command which consisted, as nearly as we could ascertain, of about thirty thousand men.
The entrenchments were about three feet in depth. At the center of each regiment, which was stationed around them, was a battery. Sacks were made of our tents, filled with sand, and laid on top of the outer bank of the ditches. About thirty paces in front of the entrenchment, pieces of timber, four feet long, the ends of which were sharpened, were driven into the earth, inclining outwards at an angle of about forty-five degrees. At some places brushes were placed instead of timber, the limbs of which were trimmed to sharp points, and extended in the direction of the enemy. Just in front of this timber and brush a wire was fixed about three feet from the ground, which was to prevent the enemy from charging our breastworks. In the rear of our fortification, ditches were dug from the entrenchments on the tops of the hills to some distance down them, in order that the men might pass into them, and out again without being exposed to the fire of the enemy.
In front of the city, which is immediately west, the Mississippi River, which is one mile wide there, runs east, and about two miles from the city the river turns in such a way as to form a peninsula, something over a mile in length and about one mile in bredth; and on this peninsula the Yankees planted about a half dozen larger mortar guns, from which they commenced shelling the city at the beginning of the siege, and continued day and night until the siege was over, killing at times sick and wounded soldiers, also women and children. Our large siege of batteries commanded the river from the first bend above the city to where our fortifications joined it below.
Lieutenant Cantrell stated, "I have heard of the days that try men's souls, but in the besieging of the city of Vicksburg, both the souls and bodies were beyond the shadow of doubt, thoroughly tried."
During this time of trial the rations issued to us the first week were half rations of beef and corn bread; the second week half a loaf of pea bread, a piece of beef the size of a hen's egg, and a small quantity of sugar each day. (The pea bread was made of the common pea, ground and mixed with half its quantity of corn meal.) The commissary then issued flour enough for two biscuits for each man a day, a small quantity of bacon, peas and rice; the next issue, each man had only enough flour to make one small biscuit a day and quarter rations of peas, rice and sugar; the rations continued in this way until the third of July, when mule meat was issued to us. Peas sold at one dollar per quart; biscuits one dollar each and pea meal seventy-five dollars per bushel during the siege
In the infirmary was a scene of suffering which can scarcely be described; around me lay the sick, the wounded, the dying. The wounded were in great numbers, some with arms torn off, some with eyes out, and some with mangled limbs. Anyone's sympathy could be touched at this sight, but mere sympathy added nothing to their comfort.
The number of horses and mules belonging to our army was considerable and many of them were killed every day. All citizens had hiding places dug in the hills to protect their families from shot and shell which fell almost as thick as hail during the siege; signs of that siege will be seen for hundreds of years to come.
During the whole siege we stayed in the ditches with orders not to take off our cartridge box, shoes or any other article of clothing — day or night — with one-third of the men to be on guard all the time.
The enemy made a great many desperate charges and every time after sustaining a heavy loss were driven back in confusion; one charge was made and there was scarcely a man on the enemy's side who survived the charge; nearly the entire regiment making the charge were killed within thirty paces of our breastworks. The enemy approached so near our fortification at some points that each party fought with hand grenades. At one place the enemy mined our breastworks, and blew them up with powder, our men being aware of the danger erected new breastworks and dug new ditches in the rear of the original ones, and fell back to them before the enemy had the tunnel completed. When the explosion took place the enemy made a charge thinking they would bayonet what few of our men who were not killed by the explosion, then march inside the fortifications — but a volley from our men in the new ditches, killing half of them, warned the survivors of the trick, and they fled in wild confusion.
One day a flag of truce was sent out, the bearer of which informed the Yankees that permission was granted for them to bury their dead. All firing immediately ceased and our men rose up out of the trenches and stood upon the bank, while the Blue looking Yankee army stood on top of the embankment of their fortifications, some two hundred yards distant. Numbers from both parties met on the halfway ground and conversed with each other.
Shallow holes were dug and the bodies thrown in and the dirt thrown in on top of them. After fighting desperately during the day our men would talk to one another during the night.
The pickets were sent out at dark, and remained on post all during the night; terrible picket fighting was continually going on. Our loss was heavy but the enemy's loss must have been much greater. We lost only one general during the siege and that was the brave General Greene of Missouri, who was killed at his post while faithfully discharging his duty. The gunboats and our land batteries fought an artillery duel nearly every day, which would sometimes result in sinking a boat or two. After remaining in the ditches two or three weeks we began to look for relief from General Joseph E. Johnston; dispatches were afloat every day that couriers had run the blockade and brought dispatches from General Johnston, who was said to be close in the rear with a large army. Some would imagine and assert that they heard his cannon roaring in the distance. When we retired at night we knew not what the morrow would bring.
A flag of truce was sent out on the third day of July and the surrender was made on the fourth. The following are the terms of capitulation: All officers to carry out their side arms; field and staff officers allowed to carry out their horses; all servants allowed to go with their masters if they chose to do so.
TRIP FROM VICKSBURG HOME
On the fifth of July. Colonel Watkins, who was hopping on his crutches from the wounds he received in the Battle of Baker's Creek, formed his regiment in a hollow square and delivered a short but eloquent address to his men. I suppose every soldier in the Fifty-sixth regiment was proud of Colonel Watkins.
After the siege was over a Yankee soldier came riding through the streets in a buggy with a Negro woman sitting by his side. The Yankees formed and armed a Negro regiment a few days before we left Vicksburg. On July 8, we were paroled and on July 12, we left Vicksburg, each soldier being searched by a Yankee officer before passing out of their lines.
We started with rations sufficient for us until we reached Brandon, Mississippi, a distance of fifty miles. At this place we expected to take the cars and proceed to our homes. On the night succeeding our departure we camped along the eastern bank of Big Black River, near the place where the battle of Big Black Bridge was fought. The night was dark and drizzly, and during the dead hours of the night an alarm was given, which caused every soldier to rise to his feet instantly, not knowing what really was to pay. We soon learned that loose horses were running through the encampment. The horses ran over two soldiers, breaking one's thigh, and the other's skull; another was so terribly frightened that he died in a few moments.
The following night we camped near the town of Raymond, soon after we passed Cooper's Well, a summer resort for the gay and fashionable. Late in the afternoon we crossed Pearl River and halted to camp. The enemy was at that time engaging General Joseph E. Johnston, who was in Jackson with an army of about thirty thousand men, and the roaring of the cannon reminded us of those that had been so lately sounding around the hills of Vicksburg. Leaving our camp near the Pearl River on the morning of July 15, we soon arrived at the forks of the Brandon and Enterprise roads where we received orders to turn our course and march to Enterrprise, a distance of eighty miles further, as General Johnstone was preparing to evacuate Jackson and would be compelled to have use of the railroad to transport his own troops to Morton at which place he stopped his army and established headquarters.
Our rations were then consumed and we subsisted on green corn until we reached Enterprise. A great many of the soldiers were very feeble from scanty rations received while in the ditches and upon learning that they had to travel eighty miles further without drawing one pound of sustenance from the government they became discouraged
and numbers of them took horses and mules and rode them to Enterprise without asking permission of the owners or paying for their use of same.
Chills and fever were a common complaint among us. I was numbered with these unfortunates. I had previously been confined with measles. The country which we now passed through was very poor and the soldiers suffered for the want of suitable subsistence. Our gallant Lieutenant Cantrell was stricken with chills and fever to which illness he grew gradually worse. When we reached a small town called "Cato," he stopped, being unable to travel further. At this little village, the houses of which were at the time mostly vacated by the inhabitants, our general established a hospital and most of the vacant houses were soon occupied by the sick and wounded soldiers.
I was stricken with typhus fever after the surrender of Vicksburg. When we became able to walk seven or eight miles a day the Yankee doctors would pronounce us well to keep from feeding us. Many would go only a short distance before becoming so ill, and having no medical attention, die. From this place we advanced to Meridian, Mississippi, where we boarded the train for Selma, Alabama, and where we arrived a few days later. The Yankees furnished us about three days' rations and after that time we were left to our own devices to secure our food.
[MARTIN was one of many in ill health at this time. He appears on a register of General Hospital, Petersburg, Virginia, as having been admitted on 21 July 1863 with bronchitis ("Complaint Bronch C.") and being returned to duty 22 July (Confederate Archives, Chapter 6, File No. 273, page 72.]
At Selma, Alabama, we took the steamboat for Montgomery. Before we reached Selma, the train stopped at a station for water and we spied a large pile of watermelons, ready for shipping. The hungry soldiers raided the patch, each getting the largest melon possible. As the train moved off, several were left. I reached the step just in time.
At Montgomery, before we boarded the train, each soldier was examined and if found feeble was placed on the train. The feeble soldiers filled the coaches while the able soldiers were compelled to wait. We feeble soldiers had some hearty laughs as the train moved out and we waved adieu to them, as they cursed and cavorted for being under orders to remain.
On reaching West Point we took the cars for Newnan Our hearts swelled with happiness as our train neared Newnan. The familiar scenes brought tears to our eyes as we thought of the few hours separating us from our loved ones. We were met in Newnan by Uncle Billy Copeland in a two-horse wagon.
About the middle of September (1863) we were ordered back to Atlanta to reorganize. Many of our officers had fallen during the siege of Vicksburg and an election was held to elect new officers. The soldiers and supplies were transferred to Chattanooga immediately, where the fighting soon commenced. Several battles were fought near Chattanooga [in late November].
In September 1863, Union troops had captured Chattanooga, just across the northwestern line of Georgia. When they moved into Georgia, the Federal forces were defeated and driven back into Chattanooga. According to Gen. Evans' "Confederate Military History," after sizable U.S. reinforcements were brought in, the Union troops attacked the Confederates in the battles of Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge (23-25 November), sending the southern army in defeat back to Georgia." Gen. Alfred Cumming's brigade, Stevenson's division, in which Martin served was "distinguished for gallantry in the fight against Sherman at the tunnel in Chattanooga. After the Federal troops appeared at the base of Missionary Ridge, the Thirty-ninth Georgia and Fifty-sixth, Lieut. Col. J. T. Slaughter in command, went down the hill and "Briskly engaged them." According to General Cleburne, General Cumming twice led charges with part of his brigade, and then placed the Fifty-sixth in line for a charge, supporting it by placing the Thirty-sixth Georgia ten paces in the rear. Twice he was "checked and had to reform." In the last effort "Tennesseans, Arkansans and Texans joined and the enemy was driven back with a loss of 500 prisoners and eight stand of colors, of which two were taken by the Georgia regiments." Evans quotes from recollections of General Sherman: "The enemy at the time being massed in great strength in the tunnel gorge, moved a large force under cover of the ground and the thick bushes, and suddenly appeared on the right and rear of this command. The suddenness of the attack disconcerted the men, and exposed as they were in the open field, they fell back in some disorder to the lower edge of the field and reformed." Captain Morgan commanded the Fifty-sixth in the charges.
The army was soon in Georgia, not to enter Tennessee again until a year later A letter from General Joseph E. Johnston, commander of the Tennessee army, to President Davis in late December 1863 stated that to assume the offensive he must either invade middle or east Tennessee. The obstacles to the first course were Chattanooga, now a fortress, the Tennessee River, the rugged desert of the Cumberland Mountains, and an army outnumbering his more than two to one. The second course would leave open the road to Atlanta. There was neither subsistance nor field transportation enough for either march. "I can see no other mode of taking the offensive here," he said, "than to beat the enemy when he advances and then move forward. But to make victory probable, the army must be strengthened." He made the suggestion that Negroes be substituted for soldiers detached or daily duty, as well as company cooks pioneers and laborers for engineering service, which would relieve 10,000 or 12,000 men for active duty.
[In May 1864, a concerted effort to take Richmond was begun by Federal troops in Virginia, and simultaneously a drive toward Atlanta was launched. The larger Northern forces outflanked the Rebel forces at Dalton, then inflicted heavy losses on the Confederates as Resaca.]
At Resaca a bloody battle was fought in which both sides suffered heavy losses. Many of our officers were killed. Leaving Resaca, we marched through to New Hope Church, in Paulding County. We engaged and one of the bloodiest battles of the war was fought. We fought three days and great numbers from both sides fell.
A major fight was waged at New Hope Church, then the Yankees received heavy losses at Kennesaw Mountain, but the rentless advance southward resumed. On 9 July Union troops were on the outskirts of Atlanta. On 18 July Confederate attacks were unavailing, and a 40-day siege of the town began.
During our march to Atlanta we had several skirmishes. We burned the bridges of all the streams we crossed, thinking we would delay General Sherman, when to our consternation he had pontoon bridges which he used to his advantage. He flanked us on the right and we hastened to beat him to Atlanta. We eached Atlanta two days before Sherman's army did. He rushed in the direction of Stone Mountain. We were able to prevent his ascending the mountain, on which he intended to place his guns to shell the city. The armies met at Peachtree Creek, near Stone Mountain and engaged in battle. Both sides sustained severe losses. After the battle, we spent the night in the trenches. General Sherman's plan was to take Atlanta in one attempt never materialized. For three or four weeks we fought day and night, in and around Atlanta. Each soldier was given sixty rounds of cartridges each night and many times more were used. Our supplies were cut off on both sides. Railroads were torn to pieces, and Atlanta was a scene of devastation. . . . Those of you who have seen the cyclorama in Atlanta have almost as vivid a picture as we on duty had. When the din of shells died for a moment, we could hear the shrieks and see the flapping wings of the Lone Eagle as he flew from side to side or soared high in the heavens.
After two more repulsed attacks, the Confederate army evacuated Atlanta on 2 September and Union forces entered the town. The southern army marched north into south central Tennessee, hoping to cut the long Yankee supply lines and to draw them back toward Tennessee. A typewritten index card in Martin's consolidated record indicates that he was one of a group of men detailed to the Army of Tennessee on 12 August 1864. A Special Requisition, Form No. 40, shows "One Jacket" and "One pair Pants" being issued to Martin at Macinlys [?] on 21 September 1864. The reason for the requisition, as indicated on the form that required certification that the "articles specified are absolutely requisite for the public service, rendered so by the following circumstances," was handwritten by Lieut. Col. W. E. Raminger [?]. As best I can make out, it reads "Destitute and going to the front." The muster roll of the 56th Regiment indicates Martin was detailed a "teamster" in September 1864.
The main body of Union troops burned Atlanta and then started southeastward for Savannah. They destroyed rail lines, factories, bridges, stored supplies, and food, as they foraged and lived off the land. By 22 November they reached Milledgville, then continued on destroying and pillaging, only barely opposed by weak scattered Georgia militia units. On 13 December the Northern troops took Fort McAllister, and shortly after the 10,000 defenders of Savannah left, permitting the Union soldiers to march in on 21 December.
We were not beaten by force at Atlanta, but when our supplies were cut off, we were obliged to retreat to Jonesboro, where the whole division was captured, and in this I was taken prisoner. We were sent to Atlanta and placed under guard. Then we were sent on ourway to Camp Chaise prison but General Joe Wheeler, a dashing young Confederate general, with 1,500 calvarymen succeeded in destroying fifteen miles of railroad which caused the Yankees to abandon the idea of proceeding to Camp Chaise. We were marched back to Atlanta and from there to Fayetteville to be exchanged. During our captivity our regiment had marched into Tennessee.
We were forwarded to Newnan to consult Colonel Griffin. We were ordered to proceed to our homes and remain until orders from our commander. Hood, making his way into Tennessee, advanced in the direction of Nashville. His plans were to destroy the city as Sherman had destroyed Atlanta, but the encounter with the enemy near Nashville resulted in the death and capture of the majority of his army.
[In the ill-fated army that marched into Tennessee under General Hood, there were four brigades of Georgians, and parts of two others. In S. D. Lee's corps were Cumming's brigade, including the Fifty-sixth regiment.]
Johnston was fighting on the line of Virginia while Lee was fighting in Virginia. Johnston planned to join Lee in Virginia and destroy Grant's and McClellan's forces. Johnston was called upon to take command of the army in Tennessee on 22 February 1865. In the organization of the army under Johnston, as reported after 9 April, one of the many Georgia commands included was the Thirty-ninth regiment, consolidated with the Thirty-fourth and part of the Fifty-sixth under Lieut. Col. W. P. Milton and Col. C. H. Phinizy; and the Forty-second Georgia (consolidated with the Thirty-sixth and parts of the Thirty-fourth and Fifty-sixth), under Lieut. Col. Lovlick P. Thomas. Cumming's former brigade was down to 213 soldiers.
General Lee, being overpowered, was compelled to surrender. He dispatched General Johnston to surrender, thus ending the struggle between the North and South. When Lee surrendered he wept and cried brokenly, "I'm not whipped." General Grant replied, "No, Lee, we know you aren't whipped, just overpowered." Lee offered his sword, gun and horse but General Grant refused them. He also refused to let his men cheer for victory. Peace was signed 5 April 1865, sixty-seven years ago. (One hundred twenty-eight years ago 5 April 1993).
[On 9 April 1865 the large Confederate army in Virginia surrendered at Appomattox. On 16 April Union forces entered Georgia from Alabama and captured Columbus, then moved on to take Macon on 20 April. The war was effectively brought to an end by the surrender of the only sizable remaining Confederate army near Durham Station, North Carolina, on 26 April 1865.]
"One has only one life to give to his country. I offered my life, but it was spared for some purpose. During the struggle I was in every battle fought by the Fifty-sixth Georgia Regiment. I was captured three times by the Yankees, but I never received a wound nor scratch during my three years and eight months of service to my country."
According to a form Martin Gentry completed on 21 July 1903 in pursuit of a pension for indigent Civil War veterans, Martin was not with his regiment when it surrendered near Bentonsville, North Carolina, in April 1865. At time he was at Dalton, Georgia, driving an army supply wagon on detail by order of the officer in charge of his company. His sixth child Cynthia, was born sometime in 1865.
V. RECONSTRUCTION ERA
Martin returned as a civilian to a Georgia that was devastated, with dead, fields laying idle and unkept, buildings burned, railroads destroyed, unemployment rampant, poverty widespread, and industry decimated. A provisional governor was appointed, and on 26 October Georgia accepted all the requirements required for readmission into the Union, including the recession of Secession, abolition of slavery, and the writing of a new state constitution. A new state legislature was elected in November. In December the legislature ratified the Thirteenth Amendment (prohibiting slavery, and Georgia entered into the Union. In 1866, however, the Georgia Legislature refused to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment (giving full citizenship for blacks), and Congress, which had taken over the running of reconstruction, expelled Georgia from the Union, and placed the state under military control in March 1867. The new military government arranged for a legislature to be elected which approved the Fourteenth Amendment on 21 July 1868. The military forces left and Georgia joined the union again. In elections held in April, a new constitution was ratified and the state capitol was moved to Atlanta. By September, however, the Legislature expelled 27 black members, leading Congress to re-establish military control in the state, with Geoorgia again losing its statehood. The black legislators were re-seated, and on 2 February 1870, the Fifteenth Amendment (ensuring that blacks could not be denied the right to vote) was approved, permitting the re-entry of Georgia into the Union in July.
Martin Gentry's eighth child, William, was born about 1868. By 27 July 1870, when the 1870 Census was taken in their neighborhood, Martin and Louisa were in Newnan, Coweta, Georgia. Martin was a carpenter, whose personal property was worth 100 dollars (value unchanged since 1860; he apparently did not own the house they lived in). Louisa is listed as not being able to write, as are her three oldest children. Ophilia had already married Francis Coulon in May, but there were still seven children at home: Wiley S, age 18; Sarah Elizabeth, age 14; Mary, age 12; Martha (or Mathie J. according to later censuses), age 9; James, age 7; Cynthia, age 5; and William, age 2.
I think Martin and family must have left Coweta by 1872, because I do not find him listed in the Tax Digest for Coweta County for that year. [When I can get back to Atlanta again, I need to review the existing tax censuses for this decade.] Martin and Louisa's last child, Litha, was born in 1872. Eldest son Wylie S. must have married in 1871 or '72, to Eliza, five years his senior.
The 1880 Census (on June 1) find a Martin and Louisa living in Rock Mills, Randolph, Alabama, near the Georgia border. Heard County, Georgia, where Francis and Ophilia (Gentry) Coulon were then living, is directly across the border. Martin was now a cabinet maker, as was son Wylie, who lived next door. Martin's parents are indicated as having come from Georgia, while Louisa's mother appears to have been from North Carolina (her father was from Georgia). Louisa still can't write, nor can daughters Martha or Cynthia. Sara Elizabeth is no longer at home, and must have married by this time. (I need to check to see whether Randolph County marriage records are available for this period.) James is no longer at home, and would be about 17 at this time. William, who would be 12, is also missing (and according to pension application information, was no longer living in February 1902 and may have died by 1880). Mary was apparently going by the name Caroline (the age the same), and worked in a cotton mill, as did Martha and Cynthia. Martha is 19, Cynthia is 14, Litha is 8. Wyley, 29, is living with his wife Eliza, 34, and their two children: Ida, 7; son Francis, 4. Litha and Ida are both listed as attending school.
VI. LIFE IN ATLANTA
Martin R. Gentry first shows up in the Atlanta City Directory in the 1886 edition, which was compiled inlate 1885. His occupation at the time was blacksmith, working for W. M. Crim, and living on Bellwood. The following year he waslisted as a carpenter for A. A. DeLoach & Brothers, and is living at 35 Expo Grounds. He is still living at 35 Old Exposition Grounds in the 1888 Directory, in which he is still listed as a carpenter. Other Gentrys listed in the directory that year include a Mrs. "Letha" (missprint for Litha?) and a Miss Martha, both working at the Old Exposition Cotton Mills and boarding at Martin's address. A Miss Addie, a Sibylla, Mrs. Delia and Charles Gentry were also working at the cotton mill, and boarding at 36 Old Expo Grounds, along with Tally C., who was a yardmaster. An Ernest was a laborer at the cotton mill, and he boarded at 34 Old Expo Grounds, along with James O., who also worked at the cotton mill. An Edward and a Miss Lena Gentry, also both working at the cotton mill, are boarding at 54 Old Expo Grounds. Martin is not listed in the 1889 Directory (or he may have been listed as "Michael R." by mistake — Michael R. is a carpenter at Globe Fundry & Machine Works, boarding at Oglethorpe Park). Other Gentrys listed as boarding at Oglethorpe Park in that year are Ernest E, Edward L., James O. A., Charlie and Capers T. Allof them also working at the Exposition Cotton Mill.
Martin was living in Atlanta on 10 August 1889 when he filled out his first pension form — a Declaration of Survivor for a Mexican War Pension, under the Act of 29 January 1887. Some of the application is in his hand, but most of it appears to have been prepared by someone else — probably the clerk at L. Bingham & Co. that filed the document on his behalf. This first application states that Martin was a Private in the company commanded by Captain Francis McCardy [sic] in the regiment of Cavalry Recruits commanded by Jackson Loyal in the War with Mexico; that Martin enlisted at Lafayette,Georgia, on or about July 1847 for the term of five years, and was honorably discharged at Dalton, Georgia, in January 1848. He descripes his service as "I was en route to Mexico." He further states that he is 60 years old, that he was born at McDonough, Henry County, GA, on 15 May 1829, and states that he is dependent on others than those legally bound for his support and that he has been so dependent since "the war more or less." In describing what was done for his support, he stated that "I have has numerous kinds of support since I have been disabled by the war and I claim pension from the war with Mexico." He further stated that he was disabled by reason of "broken arm and hurt in chest and rite [sic] shoulder," and that his disability was not incurred "while in any manner voluntarily engaged in aiding or abetting the rebellion against the authority of the United States"; but that his disability was incurred at Dalton on or about 20 November 1847 as a result of "being thrown from my horse in the Mexican War." Later on he does cross out words in the alternative statement about his service to indicate that "I was not engaged in battle with the enemy in the War with Mexico" (emendation indicated in italics). He also states that those upom whom he is dependent are "my children" and that "I had healp [sic] from the church an' from the world." He further states that his wife's maiden name was "Louisa Jane Kittriel," that they were married at Heard County on 25 August 1850 and that his wife was currently living. He also stated that he had "once" before made application for bounty land, that he was "not" a pensioner of the U.S., and that since his discharge from the service he had resided "mostly in Heard County, GA, but at present in Atlanta, Fulton County, GA." He appointed L. Bingham of Washington, D.C., as his attorney, and his signaturewas witnessed by a W. C. Daniel and James Gentry (Martin's son), and certified by the Clerk of the Superior Court of Fulton County. The document is stamped as filed by the U.S. Pension Office on 15 August 1889. A form entitled "Articles of Agreement," dated 23 August 1889, states that Martin, then living at 633 Marietta Street, Atlanta, agreed to pay L. Bingham & Co. of Washington, D.C., a contingent fee of $25 in the event he received the pension. (Under federal law, that was the highest fee attorneys could charge for pension-related services, and fees could exceed $10 only when a separate fee agreement had been entered into.)
A form from the Department of the Interior's Bureau of Pensions addressed to the officer in charge of Record and Pension Division, War Department, requesting information from the records of the War Department was completed by the War Department on 30 October 1889. It states that Martin R. Gentry enlisted 23 March 1848 and served as "Recruit" in Colonel Loyall's Independent Company Gorgia Mounted Volunteers Mexican War. It further states that "Place of enlistment and travel allowance [had been] requested" and that masrtin was discharged at Dalton on 11 August 1848. The same information is provided on a memo form dated 4 November 1889, with the addition that "from place of discharge [Dalton to] home Heard County, was 142 miles, to rendevous O."
In 1890, affidavits were submitted in support of Martin's claim. On 22 January 1890, Joel F. Hammond, M.D., gave the following affidavit: "That I am a regular physician and surgeon engaged in active practice, and that I have carefully examined the claimant Martin R. Gentry and find that he has at some times in the past sustained injuries of the right shoulder and left forearm — the fracture, or fracture of the clavacle [sic] (the shoulder bone) and a fracture of rhe bones of the left forearm. I cannot of my own knowledge determine the exact cause of the above injuries, but certify that they are probably the result of a fall from a horse, as described and proven [?] by himself. I further certify that the said injuries are of such a character as to render the right shoulder and left forearm of the claimant painful and so far as hard labor, or as that, any kind of labor practically useless. Said injuries are permanent."
On 14 April 1890, J. C. Harkins, Superior Court Clerk, took a wholly hand written statement summarizing a deposition from a J. Q. Clardy that "he knew said Gentry at the time of his enlistment as a Mexican War soldier in Walker County, Georgia, that it was in the year 1847 or 1848. He also knew the said Gentry prior to enlistment as a soldier for Mexican War, that he enlisted in Capt. McCurty's Company. Deponent further says that he knew the said Gentry on his return from the Mexican War and that he sustained a broken arm by reason of being thrown from a horse which injury was sustained during his, the said Gentry's enlistment in the Mexican War."
On 22 April 1890, Martin gave the following affidavit: "I was a recruit in the Mexican war under Captain McCurty's 'Francis.' Actually served sixty days during the year 1847. During that time sustained injuries by being thrown from a horse, breaking my left forearm and right should[er]; which disabilities has [sic] rendered me unable to perform manual labor (3/4) three fourth [sic] of my time. My disabilities are permanent and were not contracted in aiding or abetting in the late Rebellion. I never rendered service in the Army or Navy other than the above mention, for which I never have received a pension, other than a Land Warrant. I have no Real Estate nor personal property. I am entirely dependent on my labor for support. I am sixty-one (61) years old, was born 15 May 1829."
A J. S. Holliday and a William Dowling served as witnesses, along with the Clerk of the Superior Court. Martin gave his address as 633 Marietta Street, Atlanta. A William C. Daniel, living at 76 Courtland Street, Atlanta, provided a "Neighbor's Affidavit" on 22 April 1890. He stated that he was 45 years old and had known Martin since 1850, and that he saw Martin after his discharge in 1850 at Franklin, Heard County. He described Martin's physical condition then as "[H]e had received injuries by being thrown from a horse while in the services of the U.S. Mexican War, that said injuries had always incapacited him from doing manual labor to the extent of three-fourths of the time and I know that said Martin R. Gentry has no real estate nor personal property nor income from any source only by his own labor. The injuries above mentioned is his left arm broken and right shoulder injured which disabiled him from performing manual labor.
On 24 April 1890, Dr. W. H. Murphy, M.D., a practicing physician for the past two years, said he first saw Martin on or about 24 April 1884 in Fulton County, and gave the following "Medical Affidavit": "I have carefully examined the claimant Martin R. Gentry and find he has sustained at sometime injuries of the left forearm and right shoulder, a fracture of the shoulder bone & [?] of the left forearm. I cannot tell the exact cause of the same, but believe them to be the result of a fall. I further certify that said injuries are of such nature as to render the right shoulder and left forearm practically useless as far as laboring. I know claimant personally and have seen him (after having worked at manual labor for a few days) with his arnm and shoulder swollen and in a high state of inflammation which I certify was caused by doing ordinary carpenter's work, and further certify as to his excellent character and I know he has no personal property nor real estate, and is entirely on his own exertions for maintenance."
The 1903 Directory lists Martin R. and Louisa at 143 Bellwood, next door to James M. and Mattie Gentry. James was working as a finisher. Frank, a laborer, was boarding at 17 Postell. On 21 July 1903, Martin completed a Questions for Applicant form for an indigent pension, much like the form he filled out in 1897. The questions and Martin's responses are as follows:
1. What is your name and where do you reside (give State, County and Post Office): MARTIN R. GENTRY, 143 Bellwood Avenue, Fulton County, GA.
2. How long have you been a resident of this state? SEVENTY-FOUR YEARS, since 15 May 1829, the day I was born.
3. When and where were you born? MAY 15, 1829, HENRY COUNTY, GA.
4. When, where and in what company and regiment did you serve? IN MAY 1862 AT FRANKLIN, HEARD, GA, COMPANY "K" 56th GEORGIA REGIMENT.
5. How long did you emain in such company and regiment? UNTIL THE SURRENDER IN 1865. I think it was in April.
6. When, and where was your company and regiment surrendered and discharged? NEAR BENTONSVILLE, NORTH CAROLINA, IN 1865.
7. Were you present with your company and regiment when it was surrendered? NO.
8. If not present, state specifically and clearly where you were when you left your command, for what cause and by whose authority? I LEFT MY COMMAND ON DETAIL TO DRIVE AN ARMY SUPPLY WAGON BY ORDER OF THE OFFICER IN CHARGE OF COMPANY. I WAS AT DALTON, GA.
9. How much can you earn (gross) per annum by your own exertions or labor? NOTHING.
10. What has been your occupation since 1865? FARMER.
11. Upon which of the following grounds do yoy base your application foe oension, viz: first "age and poverty," second, "informity and poverty," or third "blindness and poverty"? AGE, INFIRMITY and POVERTY.
12. If upon the first ground, state how long you have been in such a condition that you could not earn your support? If upon the second, give full and complete history of the infirmity and its extent? If upon the third, state whether you are totally blind and when and where you lost your sight? FIRST GROUND, SINCE 1893; SECOND GROUND, GENERAL DISABILITY THE MOST TROUBLE IS WITH MY BACK AND HIP AND GENERAL PHYSICAL DISABILITY.
13. What property, real or personal, or income, do you possess, and its gross value? NOTHING.
14. What property, real or personal, did you possess in 1894, 1895, 1896, 1897, 1898, 1899, 1900, 1901, and 1902, and what disposition, if any, by sale or gift, have you made of same? NOTHING.
15. In what County did you reside during those years and what property did you return for taxation? FULTON COUNTY, GEORGIA; RETURNED NO PROPERTY.
16. How were you supported during the years 1899, 1900, 1901 and 1902? BY A PENSION FROM THE U.S. GOVERNMENT WHICH HAS BEEN DISCONTINUED.
17. How much did your support cost each of those years, and what portion did you contribute thereto by your own labor or income? I DREW $12.00 PER MONTH FROM GOVERNMENT, I EARNED NOTHING.
18. What was your employment during 1898, 1899, 1900, 1901, 1902? NONE, NOTHING.
19. Have you a family? If so, who composes such a family? Give their means of support? Have they a homestead, or other property? Their ages and how employed? ONE DAUGHTER, KEEPS BOARDERS. NO PROPERTY, 38 YEARS OLD.
20. Are you receiving any pension? If so, what amount and for what disability? NO.
21. Have you ever made an application for pension before? YES.
22. How many applications have you ever made and under what class? JUST ONE. SAME CLASS AS THIS.
The final entries in Martin's pension file are stamps and notations on two file jackets indicating that Martin died on 7 November 1911, had last been paid $12 on 4 November, and that he was being dropped from the pension roll on 11 April 1912.
We do not yet know where Martin was buried, or whether his wife was alive in 1911. Nor are we aware of any picture in existence of Martin, although some of his grandchildren and great-grandchildren surviving through Francis Martin or James M. may have pictures. The next step in tracing them will be checking for the children of these two in the 1920 Census, and if any younger descendants turn up, trying a national telephone directory search for them.
Wiley S. Gentry, G335311, son of Martin R. and Louisa Jane (Kittriel) Gentry, was born ca. 1852, Heard County, GA, died prior to March 1902, married ca. 1871, Eliza ?, born ca. 1846. They had two children:
1. Ida Gentry, G3353111, born ca. 1873, Heard County, GA.
2. Francis Martin "Frank" Gentry, G3353112, born May 1876, Heard County, GA, married ca. 1904, Atlanta, Fulton, GA, Nellie ?, born ca. 1884. They had three children:
1. Louisa Gentry, G33531121, born ca. 1905, Atlanta, Fulton, GA.
2. Willie M. Gentry, G33531122, born ca. 1907, Atlanta, Fulton, GA.
3. Ada L. Gentry, G33531123, born ca. 1909, Campbell County, GA.
Ophilia Octava Gentry, G335312, daughter of Martin R. and Louisa Jane (Kittriel) Gentry, was born ca. 1854, Coweta County, GA, died 1889, Newnan, Coweta, GA, married 29 May 1870, Coweta County, GA, Francis Narsiss Coulon, born April 1837, Lyons, France, died 1907, Griffin, GA, buried in Forsyth City Cemetery, Monroe County, GA. They had eight children:
1. John Matthew Coulon, G335312, born May 1871, Newnan, Coweta, GA.
2. Stephanie B. "Fannie Mae" Coulon, born 12 May 1873, Newnan, GA.
3. Martin Adolphus Coulon, G3353123, born 11 June 1875, Newnan, GA.
4. Laura S. Coulon, born ca. 1877, Newnan, Coweta, GA.
5. James D. Coulon, born ca. 1879, Newnan, Coweta, GA.
6. Frank Brown Coulon, G3353126, born 5 December 1879, Heard County, GA.
7. Carrie Coulon, born 16 July 1882, Heard County, GA, died 15 February 1902, Barnesville, GA, married ca. 1901, Ivey Smith.
8. Herschel Warner Coulon, G3353128, born 29 April 1888, Newnan, GA.
Martin Adolphus Coulon, G3353123, son of Francis Narsiss and Ophilia Octava (Gentry) Coulon, was born 11 June 1875, Newnan, Coweta, GA, died 31 May 1960, Macon, Bibb, GA, buried in Forsyth City Cemetery, Monroe County, GA, married 4 December 1898, Forsyth, GA, Amanda Catherine Pritchett, born 31 March 1883, died 24 April 1949, Macon Hospital, Bibb County, GA, daughter of Wiley Rhodum and Mary C. (Speir) Pritchett. They had nine children:
1. Ethel Elizabeth Coulon, born 20 December 1899, Barnesville, Lamar, GA, died 1 January 1917, Griffin, GA, buried in Griffin City Cemetery, Spalding, GA, married 20 December 1914, Idell Bishop. They had a child born/died 8 December 1916.
2. John Frank Coulon, G33531232, born 18 October 1901, Barnesville, GA.
3. Walter Martin Coulon, born 22 November 1903, Forsyth, Monroe, GA, died 16 November 1974, buried in Forsyth City Cemetery, married 27 January 1923, Florence Gertrude Pritchett, born 19 November 1907, daughter of Jim and Bessie (?) Pritchett.
4. Fannie Mae Coulon, G33531234, born 6 April 1906, Forsyth, Monroe, GA.
5. Mary Amanda Coulon, G33531235, born 4 April 1908, Forsyth, Monroe, GA.
6. Joseph Brown Coulon, G33531236, born 20 January 1910, Forsyth, Monroe, GA.
7. Annie Claudia Coulon, G33531237, born 19 August 1912, Forsyth, Monroe, GA.
8. Flossie Mae Coulon, G33531238, born 9 April 1916, Upson County, GA.
9. James Edward Coulon, G33531239, born 21 March 1921, Forsyth, Monroe, GA.
John Frank Coulon, G33531232, son of Martin Adolphus and Amanda Catherine (Pritchett) Coulon, was born 18 October 1901, Barnesville, Lamar, GA, died 23 December 1983, married first October 1919 (div. 1928), Juliette, GA, Emmie Ophelia Pritchett, born 18 September 1896, died 19 November 1938.
John Frank Coulon, G33531232, son of Martin Adolphus and Amanda Catherine (Pritchett) Coulon, married secondly, Nov. 1929, Lizzie Lou McCord, died 27 July 1931.
John Frank Coulon, G33531232, son of Martin Adolphus and Amanda Catherine (Pritchett) Coulon, married 24 December 1931, Louise Lasseter, died 17 June 1970. They had two children:
1. Silvia Elizabeth Coulon, born 16 October 1932, died 29 January 1933.
2. Donald Coulon, born 17 April 1934, died 25 February 1975.
John Frank Coulon, G33531232, son of Martin Adolphus and Amanda Catherine (Pritchett) Coulon, married 1936 (div. 1937), Helen Brookshire.
John Frank Coulon, G33531232, son of Martin Adolphus and Amanda Catherine (Pritchett) Coulon, married 3 June 1938, Myra Duke, born 1 February 1921, and had a daughter:
3. Ann Coulon, born 23 May 1939.
Fannie Mar Coulon, G33531234, daughter of Martin Adolphus and Amanda Catherine (Pritchett) Coulon, born 6 April 1906, Forsyth, Monroe, GA, died 6 June 1984, married 28 October 1928, William Harrison Gann, born 11 June 1908. They had five children:
1. Mildred Geneva Gann, G335312341, born 23 July 1919, Forsyth, Monroe, GA.
2. Gilbert Harrison Gann, G335312342, born 10 September 1931, Forsyth, Monroe, GA.
3. Charles Leslie Gann, G335312343, born 26 Feb. 1936, Forsyth, GA.
4. Betty Doris Gann, G335312344, b 20 May 1938, Forsyth, Monroe, GA.
5. Infant Gann, born/died 24 September 1944, Forsyth, Monroe, GA.
Mildred Geneva Gann, G335312341, daughter of William Harrison and Fannie Mae (Coulon) Gann, was born 23 July 1919, Forsyth, Monroe, GA, married 4 September 1948, Delton Harne, and had two daughters:
1. Cheryl Andrea Harne, born 30 August 1951, Forsyth, Monroe, GA, married 22 August 1970, Ronald Edward Gilbert, and has two sons:
1. Christian Edward Gilbert, born 25 May 1973, Forsyth, Monroe, GA.
2. David Ryan Gilbert, born 22 January 1975, Forsyth, Monroe, GA.
2. Donna Karen Harne, born ca. 1951, Forsyth, Monroe, GA.
Gilbert Harrison Gann, G335312342, son of William Harrison and Fannie Mae (Coulon) Gann, was born 10 September 1931, Forsyth, Monroe, GA, married 18 March 1949, Helen Reid, and had four children:
1. Debbie Lee Gann, born 12 August 1953, Forsyth, Monroe, GA, married ca. 1975, John Garret, and has a daughter:
1. Natashe Garret, born 31 May 1976.
2. Jerry Lamar Gann, born 4 July 1955, Forsyth, Monroe, GA.
3. William Larry Gann, born 18 June 1958, Forsyth, Monroe, GA.
4. Douglas Gann, born 14 May 1961, Forsyth, Monroe, GA.
Charles Leslie Gann, G335312343, son of William Harrison and Fannie Mae (Coulon) Gann, was born 26 February 1936, Forsyth, Monroe, GA, married 5 August 1954, Ruth Rebecca Peak, and had three children:
1. Valerie Denise Gann, born 30 December 1956, Forsyth, Monroe, GA.
2. Rhonda Lavele Gann, born 5 August 1962, Forsyth, Monroe, GA.
3. Charles Leslie "Chuck" Gann, born 9 February 1965, Forsyth, Monroe, GA.
Betty Doris Gann, G335312344, daughter of William Harrison and Fannie Mae (Coulon) Gann, was born 20 May 1938, Forsyth, Monroe, GA, married first 25 September 1953 (div), Marion Ruffin Crow, and had two children:
1. Grant Wesley Crow, born 12 September 1954, Forsyth, Monroe, GA.
2. Celia Lynn Crow, born 23 March 1961, Forsyth, Monroe, GA.
Betty Doris Gann, G335312344, daughter of William Harrison and Fannie Mae (Coulon) Gann, married secondly Jack Jarrel.
Mary Amanda Coulon, G33531235, of Martin Adolphus and Amanda Catherine (Pritchett) Coulon, was born 4 April 1908, Forsyth, Monroe, GA, died 27 September 1986, Bibb County, GA, married 4 November 1922, James Edward "Eddie" Williamson, Sr., born 14 November 1899, Macon, Bibb, GA, died 14 September 1987. They had four children:
1. James Edward Williamson, Jr., G335312351, born 2 October 1923.
2. Eunice Kathryn Williamson, G335312352, born 12 September 1925.
3. Robert Lee Williamson, G335312353, born 10 June 1927, GA.
4. William Martin "Billy" Williamson, G335312354, born 19 March 1930.
James Edward Williamson, Jr., G335312351, son of James Edward and Mary Amanda (Coulon) Williamson, was born 2 October 1923. Juliette, Jones, GA, married 14 June 1944, Pratt City, AL, Dorothy Mae Franklin, born 3 September 1922, Sipsey, AL. They had three children:
1. James Edgar Williamson, G3353123511, born May 1945, Cobb County, GA.
2. Joel Wayne Williamson, G3353123512, 23 July 1947, Rome, GA.
3. Gloria Ruth Williamson, G3353123513, born 30 May 1955, Bisbee, AZ.
James Edgar Williamson, G3353123511, son of James Edward Jr. and Dorothy Mae (Franklin) Williamson, was born 6 May 1945, Cobb County, GA, married 16 June 1966, Arab, Marshall, AL, Charlotte Smith, born 9 February 1948, Rome, GA. They have two children:
1. James Edgar Williamson, Jr., born 3 May 1971, Rome, Floyd, GA.
2. Amy Suzanne Williamson, born 26 January 1983, Rome, Floyd, GA.
Joel Wayne Williamson, G3353123512, son of James Edward Jr. and Dorothy Mae (Franklin) Williamson, was born 23 July 1947, Rome, Floyd, GA, married first 30 May 1970 (div. 1978), Ellabell, Bryan, GA, Jacquelyn Ann Duck, born 28 August 1948, Moss Point, Jackson, MS.
Joel Wayne Williamson, G3353123512, son of James Edward Jr. and Dorothy Mae (Franklin) Williamson, married secondly 9 November 1979, Ridgeland, Jasper, SC, Nancy Ann Howard, born 29 November 1953, Miami, Dade, FL. They have a daughter:
1. Kelly Jo Williamson, born ca. 1980.
Gloria Ruth Williamson, G3353123513, daughter of James Edward Jr. and Dorothy Mae (Franklin) Williamson, was born 30 May 1955, Bisbee, Cochise, AZ, married 2 July 1982, Huntsville, AL, Ray Garren.
Eunice Kathryn Williamson, G335312352, daughter of James Edward and Mary Amanda (Coulon) Williamson, was born 12 September 1925, married 15 May 1943 (div), Cullen Loyal Moon, and had two children:
1. Rose Andrea Moon, G3353123521, born 24 April 1944, Macon, Bibb, GA.
2. Ronald Lamar Moon, born/died 2 September 1946, Macon, Bibb, GA.
Eunice Kathryn Williamson, G335312352, daughter of James Edward and Mary Amanda (Coulon) Williamson, married secondly 8 September 1947, Clarence S. "Wahoo" Johnson, born 22 November 1921. They had nine children:
3. Tyrone Marcelle Johnson, born 7 March 1948, Macon, Bibb, GA, died 26 December 1959 in a car accident
4. Yvonne Antoinette Johnson, born 28 October 1951, Macon, Bibb, GA.
5. Angiolina Johnson, G3353123525, born 1 July 1953, Macon, Bibb, GA.
6. Mona Lisa Johnson, G3353123526, born 13 May 1955, Macon, Bibb, GA.
7. Rhonda Valerie Johnson, G3353123527, born 28 July 1958, Macon, Bibb, GA.
8. Kathy Manita "Marrita" Johnson, G3353123528, born 4 September 1959, Macon, Bibb, GA.
9. Darix Maurice Johnson, G3353123529, born 13 January 1962, Macon, Bibb, GA.
10. Darron Antonius Johnson, G335312352A, born 25 March 1966, Macon, Bibb, GA.
11. Erik Lance Johnson, born 13 February 1968, Macon, GA, killed in auto accident 17 February 1990, married ca. 1989, Tonya Jackson.
Rose Andrea Moon, G3353123521, daughter of Cullen Loyal and Eunice Lathryn (Williamson) Moon, was born 24 April 1944, Macon, Bibb, GA, married 9 August 1958 (div), Talmadge H. Ryals, and had two daughters:
1. Karen Marcell Ryals, adopted by Donald and Dorothy Coulon and changed name to Karen Louise Coulon, born 1 March 1960, Macon, Bibb, GA, married 1980, Eddie Couche, and had a daughter:
1. Candace Elaine Couche, born ca. 1981.
2. Patricia Ann Ryals, adopted by Donald and Dorothy Coulon and changed name to Donna Ann Coulon, born 2 February 1961, Macon, Bibb, GA.
Rode Andrea Moon, daughter of Cullen Loyal and Eunice Kathryn (Williamson) Moon, married secondly Mr. Compton, and had a daughter:
3. Penny Lynn Compton, born 30 March 1963.
Rose Andrea Moon, daughter of Cullen Loyal and Eunice Kathryn (Williamson) Moon, married thirdly Mr. Brown, and had a daughter:
4. Kathryn Lenora Brown, born March 1965.
Angiolina Johnson, G3353123525, daughter of Clarence S. and Eunice Kathryn (Williamson) Johnson, was born 31 July 1953, Macon, Bibb, GA, married ca. 1973, John Bolton Suttles, and has a daughter:
1. Kathryn Jade Louisa Suttles, born ca. 1974.
Mona Lisa Johnson, G3353123526, daughter of Clarence S. and Eunice Kathryn (Williamson) Johnson, was born 13 May 1955, Macon, Bibb, GA, married 20 August 1971, Chris Allen Nash, killed 17 May 1977 in motorcycle accident, Chandler, AZ. They had a son:
1. Michael Shane Nash, born 15 November 1972.
Mona Lisa Johnson, G3353123526, daughter of Clarence S. and Eunice Kathryn (Williamson) Johnson, married secondly 21 July 1980, James Bassett, and has a daughter:
2. Taynee Wynokia Bassett, born 23 December 1982.
Rhonda Valerie Johnson, G3353123527, daughter of Clarence S. and Eunice Kathryn (Williamson) Johnson, was born 28 July 1958, Macon, GA, married ca. 1976, Danny Eubanks Marshall. They have a daughter:
1. Taya Amanda "Mandy" Marshall, born 14 October 1976.
Kathy Manita "Marrita" Johnson, G3353123528, daughter of Clarence S. and Eunice Kathryn (Williamson) Johnson, was born 4 September 1959, Macon, Bibb, GA, married 6 January 1959 (div), Henry Forest "Skeeter" Payne. They had a son:
1. Sean Keely Payne, born 4 July 1974.
Kathy Manita "Marrita" Johnson, G3353123528, daughter of Clarence S. and Eunice Kathryn (Williamson) Johnson, married secondly Richard Alford Lester; married thirdly Ronnie Epstein, and has a son:
2. Steven Christopher Epstein, born 0 October 1988.
Darix Maurice Johnson, G3353123529, son of Clarence S. and Eunice Kathryn (Williamson) Johnson, was born 13 January 1962, Macon, Bibb, GA, married ca. 1984 (div), Susan Fitzgibbons, and had a son:
1. Taylor McCook Johnson, born ca. 1985.
Darix Maurice Johnson, G3353123529, son of Clarence S. and Eunice Kathryn (Williamson) Johnson, married secondly Wendy Landfain.
Darron Antonius Johnson, G335312352A, son of Clarence S. and Eunice Kathryn (Williamson) Johnson, was born 25 March 1966, Macon, Bibb, GA, married 24 December 1986, Dawn Davis, and has a son:
1. Duston Maverick Johnson, born ca. 1987.
Robert Lee Williamson, G335312353, son of James Edward and Mary Amanda (Coulon) Williamson, was born 10 June 1927, Forsyth, Monroe, GA, married 22 April 1950 (div, 1974), Marilyn Fraser, born 11 July 1934, Bibb County, GA. They had four children:
1. Infant Williamson, born/died 20 February 1935.
2. Robert Lee "Rocky" Williamson, Jr., born 4 January 1957, married ca. 1979, Luann Harper, and had one child:
1. Brook Williamson.
3. Randolph Fraser "Randy" Williamson, born 26 July 1958, married Wanda Joyce, and had a son:
1. Trent Williamson.
4. Robin Lee Williamson, born 13 January 1961.
Robert Lee Williamson, G335312353, son of James Edward and Mary Amanda (Coulon) Williamson, married secondly 27 July 1974 (div), Patricia Louise "Patsy" Peterman, born 4 October 1940, and had a daughter:
5. Stacey Leigh Williamson, born 30 March 1977.
Robert Lee Williamson, G335312353, son of James Edward and Mary Amanda (Coulon) Williamson, married thirdly 23 November 1983, Monteen Bethune Davis, born 19 September 1926.
William Martin "Billy" Williamson, G335312354, son of James Edward and Mary Amanda (Coulon) Williamson, was born 19 March 1930, Forsyth, Monroe, GA, married 1 April 1955, Augusta "Gussie" Mae Branch, born 26 May 1934. They had five children:
1. William Martin Williamson, Jr., born 19 March 1956, married 19 March 1982, Catherine Elizabeth Dyal, born 3 December 1959. They Have two children:
1. David Martin "Billy" Williamson, born 25 February 1984, Decatur, DeKalb, GA.
2. Ashliegh Elizabeth Williamson, born 7 February 1990, Decatur, DeKalb, GA.
2. Roy Glen Williamson, born 1 August 1957, Macon, Bibb, GA, married 10 May 1986, Macon, GA, Sharon Elizabeth "Beth" Hogg, born 14 October 1961. They have a daughter:
1. Emily Elizabeth Williamson, born 28 March 1990, Macon, Bibb, GA.
3. Michael Terry Williamson, G3353123543, born 30 August 1960, Macon, Bibb, GA.
4. Patricia Ann Williamson, G3353123544, born 16 June 1962, Macon, Bibb, GA.
5. Timothy Wade Williamson, G3353123545, born 29 October 1964, Macon, Bibb, GA.
Michael Terry Williamson, G3353123543, son of William Martin and Augusta "Gussie" Mae (Branch) Williamson, was born 30 August 1960, Macon, Bibb, GA, married 29 July 1978, Yvonne Mauldin, born 23 October 1957. They have three children:
1. Nichole Lois "Nikki" Williamson, born 3 September 1979, Macon, Bibb, GA.
2. Michael Terry Williamson, Jr., born 25 January 1982, Macon, Bibb, GA.
3. Joshua Charles Williamson, born 21 December 1985, Macon, Bibb, GA.
Patricia Ann Williamson, G3353123544, daughter of William Martin and Augusta "Gussie" Mae (Branch) Williamson, was born 16 June 1962, Macon, Bibb, GA, married 25 April 1987, John Thomas Meservey, born 22 March 1953, Winter Park, FL. They have two children:
1. Thomas Chad Meservey, born 16 April 1978, Macon, Bibb, GA.
2. Alex Amanda Meservey, born 21 December 1989, Macon, Bibb, GA.
Timothy Wade Williamson, G3353123545, son of William Martin and Augusta "Gussie" Mae (Branch) Williamson, was born 29 October 1964, Macon, Bibb, GA, married 14 November 1992, Dorothy Kay Bateman, born 19 September 1973. They have a daughter:
1. Kiri Deseray Williamson, born 22 January 1992, Macon, Bibb, GA.
Joseph Brown Coulon, G33531236, son of Martin Adolphus and Amanda Catherine (Pritchett) Coulon, was born 20 January 1910, Forsyth, GA, died 12 August 1968, buried in Barnesville, GA, married 20 November 1926, Rosalee McDaniel, born 4 August 1910. They had four children:
1. James Robert Coulon, born 18 August 1927, died 1 April 1933.
2. Joseph Brown Coulon, Jr., born 25 January 1933, married 14 June 1951, Betty Burrell, and adopted two children:
1. Johnny Earl Coulon, born 12 February 1962.
2. Penny Lynn Coulon, born 30 March 1963.
3. Walter Martin Coulon, born 29 November 1936, married 18 June 1955, Darlene McKinley, born 21 December 1936, Zebulon, GA. They have a daughter:
1. Cheryl Ann Coulon, born 5 June 1958.
4. Dorothy Ann Coulon, born 31 May 1946, married 21 November 1964, John Daniel, and has two sons:
1. Joseph Wesley Daniel, born 17 January 1967.
2. Jeffrey Martin Daniel, born 31 December 1970.
Annie Claudia Coulon, G33531237, daughter of Martin Adolphus and Amanda Catherine (Pritchett) Coulon, was born 19 August 1912, Forsyth, Monroe, GA, died 22 June 198?, married 22 June 1929, Rev. Clyde C. Cox, born 18 August 1905, died 2 September 1977. They had four children:
1. Clyde C. Cox, Jr., G335312371, born 28 October 1930.
2. Curtis Eugene Cox, G335312372, born 20 March 1934.
3. Cecil Herbert Cox, G335312373, born 11 August 1939.
4. Charlotte Ruth Cox, G335312374, born 24 June 1945.
Clyde C. Cox, Jr., G335312371, son of Rev. Clyde C. and Annie Claudia (Coulon) Cox, was born 28 October 1930, married 20 September 1950, Josephine Vance, and has two daughters:
1. Cynthia Jo Cox, born 12 January 1952, married 4 September 1970, Dan Salters, and has a daughter:
1. Jennifer Dawn Salters, born 16 January 1973.
2. Karen Sue Cox, born 28 July 1956.
Curtis Eugene Cox, G335312372, son of Rev. Clyde C. and Annie Claudia (Coulon) Cox, was born 20 March 1934, married 11 August 1951, Melrose Lane, and has five children:
1. Curtis Eugene Cox, Jr., born 14 September 1952, married Judy ?, and has two sons:
1. Michael Cox, born ca. 1975.
2. Christopher Cox, born ca. 1977.
2. Terry Lee Cox, born 10 August 1954.
3. Debra Lynn Cox, born 10 November 1955, married ca. 1975, Steve Slatterfield.
4. Dale Allen Cox, born 17 January 1958.
5. Virginia Maureen Cox, born 31 July 1959.
Cecil Herbert Cox, G335312373, son of Rev. Clyde C. and Annie Claudia (Coulon) Cox, was born 11 August 1939, married 11 April 1959, Mae Price, and adopted a son:
1. Cecil Herbert Cox, Jr., born 16 February 1960.
Charlotte Ruth Cox, G335312374, daughter of Rev. Clyde C. and Annie Claudia (Coulon) Cox, was born 24 June 1945, married ca. 1965, Wendell Campbell, killed July 1968 in auto accident. They had two daughters:
1. Wendy Campbell, born 26 March 1964.
2. Christie Campbell, born 3 April 1965.
Charlotte Ruth Cox, G335312374, daughter of Rev. Clyde C. and Annie Claudia (Coulon) Cox, married secondly Jim Bryant, and has a daughter:
3. Melissa Bryant, born 8 March 1970.
Flossie Mae Coulon, G33531238, daughter of Martin Adolphus and Amanda Catherine (Pritchett) Coulon, was born 9 April 1916, Upson County, GA, died 7 April 1979, married 25 June 1036, Bennettsville, SC, Rev. John David Carter, Church of God minister, born 31 March 1915. They had two children:
1. Daniel Lee Carter, G335312381, born 29 January 1938.
2. Gwendolyn Jeanette Carter, G335312382, born 19 July 1941.
Daniel Lee Carter, G335312381, son of Rev. John David and Flossie Mar (Coulon) Carter, was born 29 January 1938, married 30 May 1957, Barbara Jean Royals, born 10 April 1939. They have two daughters:
1. Karen Denise Carter, born 1 February 1959, married 9 August 1977, Ricky Thomas Thompson, born 26 March 1958. They have three sons:
1. Corey Jason Thompson, born ca. 1978.
2. Matthew Lee Thompson, born ca. 1980.
3. Benjamin David Thompson, born ca. 1982.
2. Kristila Dawn Carter, born 16 January 1964, married 15 February 1986, Anthony Ryan Lorren, born 29 October 1964. They have a son:
1. Adam Keith Lorren
Gwendolyn Jeanette Carter, G335312382, daughter of Rev. John David and Flossie Mar (Coulon) Carter, was born 19 July 1941, married Melvin Eugene Stepp, and has two daughters:
1. Tonya Lumae Stepp, born 12 August 1964, married 8 December 1984, Charles Albert "Al" Austin, and has a son:
1. Jonathan Andrew Austin, born ca. 1985.
2. Melanie Rachel Stepp, born 11 April 1968, married 17 March 1989, Keith Martin Abney.
James Edward Coulon, G33531239, son of Martin Adolphus and Amanda Catherine (Pritchett) Coulon, was born 21 March 1921, Forsyth, Monroe, GA, married 24 June 1938, Jonesboro, GA, Margaret Christine Crawley. They had five children:
1. Caroline Christine Coulon, G335312391, born 27 October 1939, GA.
2. Donald Edward Coulon, G335312392, born 25 October 1941, Atlanta, Fulton, GA.
3. Betty Sue Coulon, G335312393, born 5 January 1948, Atlanta, Fulton, GA.
4. William Daniel Coulon, G335312394, born 24 July 1951, Atlanta, Fulton, GA.
5. Amanda Carol Coulon, G335312395, born 26 June 1955, Atlanta, Fulton, GA.
Caroline Christine Coulon, G335312391, daughter of James Edward and Margaret Christine (Crawley) Coulon, was born 27 October 1939, Atlanta, Fulton, GA, married 7 May 1956, Billy Elmer Hunt, born 1 August 1937. They have two sons:
1. James Marty Hunt, G3353123911, born 22 March 1957, Atlanta, Fulton, GA.
2. William Boyd Hunt, born 22 December 1962, Atlanta, Fulton, GA.
James Marty Hunt, G3353123911, son of Billy Elmer and Caroline Christone (Coulon) Hunter, was born 22 March 1957, Atlanta, Fulton, GA, married 13 December 1973, Brenda ?, and has two children:
1. James Michael Hunt, born 16 September 1974, Atlanta, Fulton, GA.
2. Lithia Diane Hunt, born 4 October 1975, Atlanta, Fulton, GA.
Donald Edward Coulon, G335312392, son of James Edward and Margaret Christine (Crawley) Coulon, was born 25 October 1941, Atlanta, Fulton, GA, married ca. 1963, unidentified, and had three children:
1. James Russell Coulon, born 1 March 1962, AR.
2. Donald Edward Coulon, Jr., born 26 March 1966, Atlanta, Fulton, GA.
3. Donna Lynn Coulon, born 27 October 1970, AR.
Betty Sue Coulon, G335312393, daughter of James Edward and Margaret Christine (Crawley) Coulon, was born 5 January 1948, Atlanta, Fulton, GA, married ca. 1966 (div), unidentified, and had two sons:
1. Ronnie Phillips Bellury, born 8 December 1966, Atlanta, Fulton, GA.
2. Randall Patrick Bellury, born 3 December 1968, Atlanta, Fulton, GA.
Betty Sue Coulon, G335312393, daughter of James Edward and Margaret Christine (Crawley) Coulon, married secondly 10 November 1972, Bibb County, GA, Michael Bruce Bellury.
William Daniel "Danny" Coulon, G335312394, son of James Edward and Margaret Christine (Crawley) Coulon, was born 24 July 1951, Atlanta, Fulton, GA, married 29 November 1969, Barbara Joan McLarty, born 28 August 1952. They had a daughter:
1. Jennifer Diane Coulon, born 20 August 1976, Atlanta, Fulton, GA.
Amanda Carol Coulon, G335312395, daughter of James Edward and Margaret Christine (Crawley) Coulon, was born 26 June 1955, Atlanta, Fulton, GA, married 7 December 1974 (div), Fayette County, GA, John Raymond Childers, born 9 November 1950. They had a son:
1. Brandon Shane Childers, born ca. 1975.
Amanda Carol Coulon, G335312395, daughter of James Edward and Margaret Christine (Crawley) Coulon, married secondly Randy Graybill.
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